• Most individual breast tumors expressing the estrogen receptor (ER) are managed well by oncologists due to the availability of several developed hormonal therapies.

  • Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is associated with a poor prognosis, but the advent of HER2-targeted therapies has greatly improved patient outcomes.

  • However, half of breast cancers that overexpress HER2 also express ER and these types of tumors represent an unresolved clinical dilemma and a major cause of treatment failure and mortality.

  • We are developing a molecular imaging toolkit that can be used to image patients determine whether tumors are ER or HER2-positive.